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GYNECOLOGIST

PAP test or cervical smear

A Pap smear is performed by opening the vaginal canal with a speculum, then collecting cells at the outer opening of the cervix at the transformation zone (where the outer squamous cervical cells meet the inner glandular endocervical cells). The collected cells are examined under a microscope to look for abnormalities. The test aims to detect potentially pre-cancerous changes (called cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or cervical dysplasia; the squamous intraepithelial lesion system (SIL) is also used to describe abnormalities), which are caused by human papillomavirus, a sexually transmitted DNA virus. The test remains an effective, widely used method for early detection of pre-cancer and cervical cancer. While the test may also detect infections and abnormalities in the endocervix and endometrium, it is not designed to do so. Read more...

Colposcopy

Image 01 Colposcopy is a medical diagnostic procedure to examine an illuminated, magnified view of the cervix and the tissues of the vagina and vulva. Many premalignant lesions and malignant lesions in these areas have discernible characteristics which can be detected through the examination. It is done using a colposcope, which provides an enlarged view of the areas, allowing the colposcopist to visually distinguish normal from abnormal appearing tissue and take directed biopsies for further pathological examination. The main goal of colposcopy is to prevent cervical cancer by detecting precancerous lesions early and treating them.

HPV

HPV - Human papillomavirus infection is an infection by human papillomavirus.Most HPV infections cause no symptoms and resolve spontaneously. In some people, an HPV infection persists and results in warts or precancerous lesions. The precancerous lesions increase the risk of cancer of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, anus, mouth, or throat. Nearly all cervical cancer is due to HPV with two types, HPV16 and HPV18, accounting for 70% of cases. Between 60% and 90% of the other cancers are also linked to HPV. HPV6 and HPV11 are common causes of genital warts and laryngeal papillomatosis. Read more...

Conization of the cervix

Image 01 Conization of the cervix is defined as excision of a cone-shaped or cylindrical wedge from the cervix uteri that includes the transformation zone and all or a portion of the endocervical canal. It is used for the definitive diagnosis of squamous or glandular intraepithelial lesions, for excluding microinvasive carcinomas, and for conservative treatment of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).Conization can be performed with a scalpel (cold-knife conization), laser, or electrosurgical loop. The latter is called the loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) or large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ). Combined conization usually refers to a procedure started with a laser and completed with a cold-knife technique. Laser conization can be excisional or destructive (by vaporization). Techniques for diagnostic and therapeutic conization are virtually identical. The extent of excision must be adjusted according to individual needs.

Hysteroscopy


Image 02

A hysteroscopy is a procedure used to examine the inside of the womb (uterus). It's carried out using a hysteroscope, which is a narrow telescope with a light and camera at the end. Images are sent to a monitor so your doctor or specialist nurse can see inside your womb. The hysteroscope is passed into your womb through your vagina and cervix (entrance to the womb), which means no cuts need to be made in your skin.

A hysteroscopy can be used to:
investigate symptoms or problems – such as heavy periods, unusual vaginal bleeding, postmenopausal bleeding, pelvic pain, repeated miscarriages or difficulty getting pregnant;
diagnose conditions – such as fibroids and polyps (non-cancerous growths in the womb);
treat conditions and problems – such as removing fibroids, polyps, displaced intrauterine devices (IUDs) and intrauterine adhesions (scar tissue that causes absent periods and reduced fertility);
A procedure called dilatation and curettage (D&C) used to be commonly used to examine the womb and remove abnormal growths, but nowadays hysteroscopies are carried out instead.

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